American Journal of Social and Humanitarian Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>American Journal of Social and Humanitarian Research</strong> is a fully international, open access, peer-reviewed American journal published by <strong>Global Research Liability Limited Company</strong> that focuses on the latest research across all disciplines of the social sciences, including anthropology, economics, law, linguistics, education, geography, history, political science, psychology, sociology, and related areas. The journal is especially interested in interdisciplinary research and aims to facilitate the interaction and communication between different social science disciplines. The journal welcomes conventional-length articles as well as shorter Research Notes or short articles, as long as they meet the journal’s standards of quality and originality.</p> "GLOBAL RESEARCH NETWORK" LLC en-US American Journal of Social and Humanitarian Research 2690-9626 Using the Psychological Views of Eastern Thinkers in the Formation of Professional Concepts of Young People <p>The article is based on the fact that the formation of professional concepts of young people is an actual problem. From Eastern thinkers The psychological views and recommendations of Abu Nasr Farabi, Abu Rayhan Beruni, Abu Ali ibn Sina, Abdurrahman Jami, Ahmad Donish, Davani and others regarding the formation of professional qualities and professional concepts through work are analyzed.</p> Bilolova Zamira Bakhtiyarovna Saidirasulova Gulnora Saytmuratkhanovna Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 5 2 1 8 The Role of Education in Immigration of Patriotic Spirit to the Students of Military Higher Education Institutions <p>In this article, the purpose, methods, directions, implementation possibilities of educating young people in the spirit of military patriotism, the role of education in increasing its effectiveness, the stabilization of the mental and psychological condition of young military personnel is an important factor in ensuring security, and the issues of achieving the feeling of belonging to the fate of the country in their hearts. stated.</p> Fakhriddin Boltaev Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 5 2 9 13 Timber Smuggling and Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria <p>This research investigates the phenomenon of trans-border crime specifically in the context of wood smuggling across international boundaries. Coordinated cross-border operations encompassing various illegal activities such as illicit timber trade, human trafficking, money laundering, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, trafficking of human body parts, advanced fee fraud, identity theft, passport trafficking, racketeering, maritime piracy, counterfeiting of intellectual property, cross-border terrorism, illegal oil smuggling, illicit diamond trade, corruption, and other related offences. The international community is increasingly concerned about trans-border criminal organisations and ambitious kleptocratic governments functioning worldwide. The actions of these illicit individuals have a significant impact on our collective security, the natural surroundings, the stability of whole areas and economies, as well as the future advancement in countering the loss of public confidence and fundamental democratic principles. The research used the alien conspiracy model (ACM) and queer ladder theory (QLT) as the theoretical framework. The study employs a qualitative research style, relying heavily on secondary data sources such as textbooks, academic publications, newspapers, and internet resources. The research found that governments worldwide are all targets of organised crime, which operates via a highly decentralised structure known as the patron-client system. It is imperative for governments in the West African sub-region, as well as the rest of the globe, to implement synchronised and comprehensive policies to combat these crimes, regardless of their occurrence locations. The study suggests that the governments of the West African sub-region and Nigeria should focus on enhancing their governance capacity, providing support to dedicated reformers, and empowering citizens to oversee public functions and demand accountability from leaders in terms of ensuring safety, delivering effective public services, and efficiently utilising public resources. Additionally, it emphasises the importance of implementing robust law enforcement strategies and fostering collaboration through public-private partnerships.</p> BUBARAYI G. IBANI ARISTOTLE ISAAC JACOBS Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 5 2 14 26 Collective Punishment under the Law of War <p>This article explores the concept of Collective Punishment, which contravenes the principles of International Humanitarian law by serving as a means to penalize individuals for actions they did not individually commit. Based on this article, it is evident that accountability should be considered completely individual and cannot be attributed to the whole population. The origin of the a prohibition of collective punishment may be traced back to the 1907 Hague Regulations, which are widely recognized as a part of Customary international law.</p> Dr. Sarab Thamer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-09 2024-02-09 5 2 27 32 Implementation of World Health Organisation's Guidelines in Nigerian Newspaper Coverage of Suicides (2019-2022) <p>Over 800,000 people commit suicide each year, according to the World Health Organisation. The World Health Organisation also stresses that the impact on families, friends, and communities is devastating and far-reaching, even long after loved ones commit suicide. Hence, the World Health Organisation recommends appropriate media coverage of suicidal conduct to avoid suicide. The suicide-reporting guidelines try to decrease sensationalism and suicide and protect sensitive minds from information that may inspire suicides by describing the suicide or its method or place. Thus, Nigerian newspapers' improper suicide reporting and open contempt for WHO norms are growing concerns. Thus, this study examined Nigerian newspapers' compliance with WHO suicide coverage guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess Nigerian newspapers’ compliance with the World Health Organisation’s guidelines for the coverage of suicide. The specific objectives, among others, were to assess the extent to which Nigerian newspapers give prominence to suicide reports. The study adopted the content analysis method. This study only included the six newspapers selected for the study: <em>The Punch, Daily Sun, ThisDay, Vanguard, The Tide, and the Nigerian Observer.</em> We analysed all six newspaper editions from July 2019 to June 2022. We studied 5,304 issues of the six newspapers from July 2019 to June 2022. Four private daily newspapers published 7,52 times a week, resulting in 4,368 (82%) editions. <em>The Tide and Nigerian Observer</em> have 936 (18%) issues after publishing three times a week. The research period saw 5,304 issues from the six newspapers. We obtained the data using a coding sheet. Finally, the study concluded that the newspapers breached the World Health Organisation's media guidelines for responsible suicide reporting. Press reports on suicide indicate infractions. The findings showed newspapers breached the guidelines.</p> Konkwo, Christian Chukwuemeka Udoudo, Aniefiok Jackson Asadu, Clement Afam Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 5 2 33 58 Contribution of Haji Muhammad Mohsin and Raja Ram Mohan Roy to the People of Colonial Bengal <p>Haji Muhammad Mohsin, a well-known Bengali Muslim benefactor, lived from around 1732 until November 29, 1812. The founding of the Hooghly Mohsin College and the Hooghly Imambara is his most significant achievement. Though these were established after his death, they were established with the surplus amount of Syedpur estate donated by him for philanthropic activities. He also helped thousands of victims during the Great Bengal Famine of 1770, which was a major contribution to his participation in the event. Apart from this, he donated all his property and made a wakf estate for this purpose. Hence, he is called Danveer. Another prominent figure in 19th-century Bengal was Raja Ram Mohan Roy, an Indian reformer who lived from May 22, 1772, to September 27, 1833. He was one of the founders of the Brahmo Sabha, which was established in 1828 and served as the model for the Brahmo Samaj, a social-religious reform movement on the Indian subcontinent. Akbar II, the Mughal emperor, bestowed upon him the title of Raja. His impact might be seen in the domains of public policy, education, religion, and politics. He gained notoriety for his attempts to outlaw child marriage and sati. He is popularly called the "Father of the Indian Renaissance." He came out of orthodoxy, removed the evils from society, and spent his whole life on his philanthropic activities. Through this study, attempts have been made to make a comparative study and make a historiographical representation of these two scholars of Bengal in parallel.</p> Mafikul Islam Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 5 2 59 64 The Study, Value, and Need of the Period of Muhammad Rahimkhan I (1806-1825) <p>The article highlights the significance of investigating the reign of Khan of Khiva Muhammad Rahimkhan I (1806-1825). Through a meticulous examination of the problem's scope, it critically assesses the scholarly contributions of local and foreign historians who have explored this historical period. By scientifically analyzing their research endeavors, this study underscores the importance of comprehending the political, social, and cultural dynamics of Muhammad Rahimkhan I's rule. Understanding this period offers insights into the broader context of Central Asian history and its implications for contemporary discourse. Moreover, by evaluating the methodologies and findings of these historians, this article elucidates the scholarly landscape surrounding Khan of Khiva Muhammad Rahimkhan I's era. Ultimately, this research underscores the necessity of studying this historical epoch to glean a comprehensive understanding of Khivan governance, regional dynamics, and their enduring impacts on modern discourse.</p> Bunyodbek Saparbaev Copyright (c) 2024 American Journal of Social and Humanitarian Research 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 5 2 65 71 A Feminist Reading in Oliver Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer <p>In his play "She Stoops to Conquer" Goldsmith explores a range of themes, from gender roles to the power of social class. What makes so remarkable is that it has endured for centuries, despite its outdated language and conventions. It is a testament to Goldsmith's skill as a playwright and his ability to write timeless comedies. It is also an exploration of the power dynamics in 18th century British society. The play is structured around the classic comedic form, with the protagonist at the mercy of a series of comic misfortunes. Goldsmith's exploration of gender roles is remarkable. Despite being the female lead, Kate is not the victim of Marlow's misguided advances. She is instead a powerful, independent woman who is capable of outsmarting the male characters. Goldsmith also delves into the concept of marriage, showing that it is not always a desirable arrangement. The play has been subject to many interpretations over the years. It is seen as a reflection of the power dynamics in 18th century British society, as well as a comedy of manners. It is also seen as a feminist play, due to the strong female character at its center. Overall, "She Stoops to Conquer" is a timeless classic that has stood the test of time.</p> Zaid Tayyeh M. Bakhsh Ahmed Kadhum Jassim Copyright (c) 2024 American Journal of Social and Humanitarian Research 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 5 2 72 76 The Effectiveness of Physical Measurements in Distinguishing the Gradual Slope of High-Level and Low-Fitness Students <p>Determining the physical measurements affecting the physical fitness of high- and low-level students using the gradient regression method. The two researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method for its relevance and the nature of the research, and the research community consisted of female students from College and Departments of the Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Mosul and Hamdania university, and the research sample consisted of (153) female students distributed over the four stages. The two researchers used the following tests (the 20-meter sprint test from the high start, the test of sitting from lying down from the knees bent position during (10 seconds), the test of the wide skip of stability, the test of three hops for the right leg then the left for the farthest distance, and the test of throwing the medical ball weighing (3 kg) from the position Sitting on a chair in front of the chest, and a running-walking test of 400 meters. As for the physical measurements used (height - weight - length of the torso from sitting - arm length - leg length - chest width - hip width - thigh width - ulna width - shoulder width – perimeter humerus - Chest perimeter - waist perimeter - hip perimeter – calf perimeter - thickness of skin tuck behind humerus - thickness of the skin tuck under the shoulder - thickness of the skin tuck of the calf), and statistical means were used through the statistical bag spss, The conclusions are: Through differentiation analysis, it was possible to extract the physical measurements (height - weight - hip width - thigh width - humerus width - humerus perimeter - chest perimeter - waist perimeter - hip primeter- thickness of the skin tuck of the back of the humerus - thickness of the skin tuck of the calf). Through the Wilkes-Lambada test, it was possible to construct the estimated function = 14,699 + (thickness of the skin tuck of calf -0.107) + (length 0.073) + (weight -0.167) + (chest width 0.124).</p> Shahad Subhi Mohamed Ghazal Haifa Hadi Saleh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 5 2 77 83 Effect of an Educational Approach using Barman Model on Learning the Carrying Band and Mat’s Hold from Sitting Position in the Freestyle Wrestling for Students <p>The research aimed to prepare an educational program using the Barman model and to identify the impact of the educational program prepared with the Barman model in learning the carrying band and the mat’s grab from the sitting position in the game of freestyle wrestling for students, and the researchers used the experimental approach on (40) students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Maysan University, and they were divided into two experimental and control groups and the educational program was applied using the Barman model on the students of the experimental sample for a period of (8) weeks by (8) educational units applied educational unit Every week, the results showed the superiority of the experimental group on the control group in learning the performance of the two holds and recommended the researchers to adopt the Barman model in other studies and on different activities to take into account this model individual differences between learners.</p> Mohammed Hato Ali Mohammed Nasser Muftan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 5 2 84 92 The Fight Against Terrorism, the Common Responsibility of States? A Look at the Israel - Hamas Conflict <p>Since the September 11 terrorist attack on the US, many states have been fighting terrorism individually in their different countries and with the assistance of other states. For decades now, terrorism has been a disturbing issue to the US and the world at large. This paper seeks to examine the role of states and the International Community as whole in the fight against terrorism especially in the Israel – Hamas conflict. Adopting the doctrinal research method, this paper questions if it is the common responsibility of States to fight terrorism. It argues that, the fight against terrorism should be the common responsibility of states due to the responsibility to protect upon states and the international community as a whole. Findings reveal that states are not united in the fight against terrorism in the Israel – Hamas case and this may send a false message to terrorist groups that their action is encouraged by some states. It therefore concludes that, the fight against terrorism should be the common responsibility of states. This will send a warning signal to terrorist groups and will help curb terrorism.</p> Awa Njoworia Valerie Adamu Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-24 2024-02-24 5 2 93 113 Twin Deficit Hypothesis and Economic Growth in Nigeria <p>As economic turmoil extends across countries, discussions on fiscal policy have taken center stage. In particular, mounting fiscal and external deficits in many economies have revived interest in the Twin Deficit Hypothesis. This timely study empirically examines this hypothesis and economic growth in Nigeria from 1986-2022 using Toda-Yamamoto and ARDL models. Analysis uncovered a two-way relationship between budget shortfalls and trade gaps, backing the hypothesis. Short-term, inflated public borrowing and outlays hamper output, while improved external accounts and interest rates boost activity. However, currency depreciation slows near-term growth. Long-term, sustained budget and current account weaknesses, and higher borrowing costs drag on national output. But a weaker currency lifts competitiveness and long-run growth. To enable short and long-term expansion, findings underscored the criticality of fiscal prudence and constructive external positions.</p> Okekwu Ate Musa Gaius Mashor Tokshik Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-24 2024-02-24 5 2 114 131